The Holy Cities, the Pilgrimage and the World of Islam: A History From the Earliest Traditions till 1925 (1344H)
How fortunate that we may at once benefit from both an Arab and an Indian point of view on the faith, history, politics and civilization of the Islamic World and its sacred sites from the earliest of times. Sultan Ghalib, whose mother is the eldest grand-daughter of the sixth Nizam of Hyderbad, India, was the last ruler of the Hadramaut (South Yemen) and since resides in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, near Makkah and Medina, which are the focus of this monumental work.
As this volume literally brings alive the history of many centuries, it has something of interest for everyone, be he or she a scholar of the Middle East and the Islamic World, a Muslim longing for precious details of the Holy Sanctuaries and pilgrimage, or an art historian drawn to the great architectural complexes the world over.
In his royal style of English, the author transports us on an intriguing journey where we are introduced to hitherto little- or un-known places, personages and events. A real education altering one’s world-view!
What astounded me personally were the fascinating details – and even cataloging – of the enormous and fervent support and involvement over the centuries of the entire Muslim world, stretching from South East Asia to West Africa, in the maintenance of Makkah, Medina and Jerusalem. It is surprising to hear of India’s funding the Dome of the Rock and Mosque of al-Aqsa. Staggering sums were consistently donated not only for expansion and the repairs necessitated by such natural disasters as floods, earthquakes and fire, but also for the cities’ indigent population. International patronage was devoted towards education and various charitable endowments. The needed Hijaz railway was financed by individuals as well as the Muslim public from Iran, Morocco, Bokhara, Egypt, Europe, Aden, South East Asia, India, et al.
Included would appear to be mention of nearly all the rulers and key people from the Caliphate onwards. Struggles for power read like tales of mystery and intrigue. The sheer inclusion of the names and dates of all these important personages through time provides the reader with a reference work of substance. One comes to understand what a privilege and responsibility has been the role of those called “the Servitors of the Two Holy Sanctuaries.”
For a Muslim to follow the development of each key element found in the three sacred sanctuaries is deeply moving, such as the story of the Kiswa over tine, the enclosure of the Prophet’s tomb, the Maqam Ibrahim, and the exact circumstances of how Prophetic relics reached the Topkapi. And what a bonus to have included the very prayers which are to be said by Muslims making Tawaf, performing the Sa’y or standing in the Prophet’s garden, ar-Rauda. These prayers will also be of interest to the outsider who may wonder what the circumambulating pilgrims, for example, are saying. How exciting to have a letter from Al-Ghazali (d. 1111 CE) regarding inspiring moments at the Hajj.
For the art historian who, for example, studies the Mughal period in India and has seen the portraits of Akbar and Jahangir, it is interesting to be able to envision these sultans alive, in their enthusiasm and involvement while readying the Hajj caravans. We mostly think of Shah Jahan only in association with the Taj Mahal, but now we meet him as a donor to the Holy Cities. Here we learn of the involvement of the Mughal court with Arabia.
I was brought to tears when Umar Fakhrad-din Pasha refused to leave his sworn post in defense of the Prophet’s mosque in Medina. He had held out against all odds and when at last he was torn away from his station, he fell weeping at the tomb of the Prophet, begging his forgiveness for having been forced to forego his oath.
Against the captivating backdrop of history, whether it be World War I, a famine, or the yoke of colonization, we witness the strength of the Muslim ummah working as one.
Quoting from Ihsanoglu’s introduction to the book, I agree that “Possibly the greatest benefit of this valuable book is that to the Western reader it provides a rare and truthful display of the development of events [in the Muslim world] from an Arab perspective which we hope will contribute to redressing the stereotypical misconceptions through which many Western writers have portrayed Islam, Muslim, and their causes.”
“Mecca and Medina, the world’s most forbidden cities, have long been a symbol of mystery and fascination to outsiders. In this unique, ground-breaking book, one of the world’s leading experts in Arabian history investigates the colourful, often astonishing story of these two great cities. Carefully sifting fact from legend, Sultan Ghalib describes their architecture, religious life, society, and politics, and shows how they have played a pivotal role in the history of Islam. All those with an interest in Islamic civilization, religion, and current affairs, will find this volume an indispensable resource.”
– T.J. Winter, Professor of Islamic Studies, Cambridge University
“The product of years of painstaking research drawing on thousands of sources inaccessible to all but rare scholars of Islam, The Two Holy Cities, The Pilgrimage and the World of Islam by Sultan Ghalib al-Qu’aiti uses the single lens of the pilgrimage and the holy cities of Mecca and Medina to look deep into the history of Islamic civilization. Not only scholars but all who are interested in how Islamic religion and culture have exerted power and fascination down through centuries of intricate Muslim social and political history will benefit from this book.”
– Frank Vogel, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Adjunct, Professor of Islamic Legal Studies, Harvard Law School
“...The book offers the reader an inspiring review of the various aspects of cultural life in the two Holy Cities across the centuries, based on authentic journals of contemporary [to each period] travelers and expeditions...This book is the product of an extensive and commendable effort on the part of the author to present the reader with a wide and comprehensible insight into the vicissitudes of time which encompassed the two Holy Mosques, the most sacrosanct and venerated sanctuaries in Islam.”
– Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OLC)
Sultan Ghalib bin ‘Awadh al-Qu’aiti, the last ruler of the Qu’aiti State, Hadhramaut (presently Yemen), was born in 1948 and educated mostly in England, with an MA from Oxford in Oriental Studies (Islamic history) and another in Arabian Studies from Cambridge, both with honors. The sultan has been a Saudi resident since 1968, presently residing in Jeddah. He has working knowledge of Arabic, English, Urdu/Hindi, French, Persian, and German, allowing for a rare depth in his research of various historical periods and geographic regions.
Sultan Ghalib bin Awadh al-Qu'aiti (II) (born 7 January 1948)was sultan of Qu'aiti, in modern Yemen, and the current head of the al-Qu'aiti household. He reigned from 10 October 1966 until the monarchy was ousted by communists on 17 September 1967.
Ghalib was born in London, United Kingdom, and is the eldest son of his predecessor, Sultan Awadh bin Saleh.His coronation took place 10 June 1967. After his forced abdication, Ghalib married Sultana Rashid Ahmed on 7 June 1975, with whom he has fathered one son, Saleh (born 1977) and two daughters, Fatima and Muzna (born 1979 and 1980 respectively).
During his later years, he has authored a number of papers and books on Islam and Arab history, including The Holy Cities, the Pilgrimage and the World of Islam (2008).Paperback: 700 pages
Publisher: Fons Vitae
Author: Sultan Ghalib bin Awadh al-Qu'aiti
Dimensions: 5.8 x 2.1 x 8.5 inches